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< Page ,Total 23 >
Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions EI Scopus CPCI-S SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 97 , 144-148 | Cryogenics
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Liquid nitrogen spray cooling can achieve an excellent cooling performance in a cryogenic wind tunnel which can simulate supersonic flows with both high Reynolds number and Mach number for aerodynamic tests. However, the fluctuating flow of a liquid nitrogen supply system can lead to the fluctuation of the injection pressure which induces unsteady cavitation and makes it difficult to control the cooling and high-precision temperature in the cryogenic wind tunnel. To understand the characteristics of the unsteady cavitation in fluctuating flow, we developed the numerical models of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through the spray nozzles. Sine functions are normally used to simulate the fluctuating inlet pressure, and the effects of the fluctuation amplitude and frequency on the cavitation processes are studied under different inlet temperatures. It is found that the cavitation changes periodically and is generally promoted by the pressure fluctuation. The increase of the frequency can slightly suppress the cavitation while the increase of the amplitude can promote the cavitation. The effects of amplitude and frequency are enhanced under a higher inlet temperature. These findings could benefit the design of cryogenic spray cooling systems in cryogenic wind tunnels. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Cooling performance Cryogenic spray cooling Cryogenic wind tunnels Fluctuation amplitudes High Reynolds number Mixture model Pressure fluctuation Unsteady cavitation

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GB/T 7714 Xue, Rong , Chen, Liang , Zhong, Xin et al. Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions [J]. | Cryogenics , 2019 , 97 : 144-148 .
MLA Xue, Rong et al. "Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions" . | Cryogenics 97 (2019) : 144-148 .
APA Xue, Rong , Chen, Liang , Zhong, Xin , Liu, Xiufang , Chen, Shuangtao , Hou, Yu . Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions . | Cryogenics , 2019 , 97 , 144-148 .
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Non-equilibrium spontaneous condensation flow in cryogenic turbo-expander based on mean streamline off-design method SCIE
期刊论文 | 2019 , 98 , 18-28 | CRYOGENICS
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

In a modem cryogenic liquefaction system, the turbo-expander is used to operate in the two-phase region so that a high cooling capacity can be provided. Compared with the expansion process in a conventional over-heated turbo-expander, non-equilibrium condensation occurs in the duct when the turbo-expander operates in the two-phase region, which varies the expansion process. In our previous works, the simulation by CFX can predict the nucleation process controlled by gaseous sub-cooling well, and the outlet liquid fraction has a good agreement with our experimental data. As the non-equilibrium condensation simulated by using CFX consumes much time and massive computing resource, it is not feasible to simulate the two-phase expansion in the turbo-expander in a wide off-design range. In this study, we investigate the non-equilibrium spontaneous condensation along the mean streamline of a cryogenic turbo-expander passage by using an off-design computational code compiled by Matlab. The two-phase off-design computational code is developed from our previous overheated off-design code. The calculation function of thermodynamic parameters on the mean streamline and non-equilibrium condensation module are integrated with this code. The variations of thermodynamic parameters on the mean streamline in a non-equilibrium condensation process are simulated. Nucleation onset, droplet growth/vaporization process, liquid fraction distribution are revealed. Droplet developing region is divided according to the droplet critical and mean radius. Simulation results of five two-phase cases are compared and analyzed, and different non-equilibrium condensation features and liquid fraction distributions are found. At last, isentropic efficiency and outlet liquid fraction are used to evaluate two-phase expansion performance, and it is found that the performance results from the simulation in five cases agree with experimental data well.

Keyword :

Non-equilibrium condensation Two-phase off-design prediction Droplet growth Cryogenic turbo-expander Liquid fraction

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GB/T 7714 Niu, Lu , Chen, Xingya , Sun, Wan et al. Non-equilibrium spontaneous condensation flow in cryogenic turbo-expander based on mean streamline off-design method [J]. | CRYOGENICS , 2019 , 98 : 18-28 .
MLA Niu, Lu et al. "Non-equilibrium spontaneous condensation flow in cryogenic turbo-expander based on mean streamline off-design method" . | CRYOGENICS 98 (2019) : 18-28 .
APA Niu, Lu , Chen, Xingya , Sun, Wan , Chen, Shuangtao , Hou, Yu . Non-equilibrium spontaneous condensation flow in cryogenic turbo-expander based on mean streamline off-design method . | CRYOGENICS , 2019 , 98 , 18-28 .
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Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 92 , 248-258 | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE
WoS CC Cited Count: 5
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Abstract :

Aiming to improve the heat transfer of phase change spray cooling, experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of surface roughness, nozzle inlet sub-cooling degree and nozzle-to-surface distance. A commercial full cone nozzle was employed to spray the working fluid R134a towards a circular cooling surface in a closed loop system. It is found that rougher cooling surface can bring forward the nucleate boiling, leading to enhanced heat transfer and broadened high-efficiency heat transfer range. Higher nozzle inlet sub-cooling degree can retard the flash evaporation of R134a inside the nozzle passageway and increase the mass flowrate correspondingly. As a result, the spray cooling performance is greatly improved. With regard to the influence of nozzle-to-surface distance, the optimal heat transfer capability is obtained at 16 mm. It is slightly larger than the distance at which the circular cooling surface is overlapped with the cross-section of the spray field. For purpose of gaining a deeper insight into the underlying reason, a CFD model based on the Euler-Lagrange approach was established to simulate the atomization process. The results show that the nozzle-to-surface distance not only affects the spray field coverage area, but also has some impacts on the microscopic atomization characteristics. The combined action of these two factors accounts for the occurrence of the optimal nozzle-to-surface distance.

Keyword :

Surface roughness Nozzle-to-surface distance Sub-cooling degree Phase change heat transfer Spray cooling

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GB/T 7714 Liu, Xiufang , Liu, Jionghui , Xue, Rong et al. Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system [J]. | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE , 2018 , 92 : 248-258 .
MLA Liu, Xiufang et al. "Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system" . | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE 92 (2018) : 248-258 .
APA Liu, Xiufang , Liu, Jionghui , Xue, Rong , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system . | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE , 2018 , 92 , 248-258 .
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Roles of Point Defects in Thermal Transport in Perovskite Barium Stannate SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 122 (21) , 11482-11490 | JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C
WoS CC Cited Count: 2 SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

Perovskite barium stannate (BaSnO3) is a promising candidate that can be used as transparent conducting oxide in optoelectronic devices and as the channel material in high-mobility oxide electronics. In this work, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity and investigate the impact of point defects on thermal transport in BaSnO3 based on the phonon Boltzmann transport equations with interatomic force constants from first-principles calculations. In pristine BaSnO3, we find the contribution of acoustic phonons to thermal transport accounts for 54% at 300 K and the rest is attributed to the lower-frequency (27.5-50 THz) optical modes with relatively high group velocity. We show oxygen vacancies and impurities can cause noticeable reduction in thermal conductivity of BaSnO3, but the corresponding mechanisms differ in terms of scattering rates on different phonon modes. The thermal conductivity reduction due to oxygen vacancies at 300 K is mainly caused by the increased scattering of the acoustic phonons and the low-frequency optical phonons. Lanthanum and potassium impurities mainly increase the scattering of acoustic phonons, but antimony impurity lowers the thermal conductivity by increasing the scattering rate of dominant phonons, including both the acoustic modes and the low frequency optical modes. The results and findings facilitate us to better understand the thermal transport mechanisms of perovskite oxides with an emphasis on the impact of oxygen vacancies and impurities on the thermal properties of BaSnO3.

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Liang , Zhang, Yingying , Wang, Xiaojia et al. Roles of Point Defects in Thermal Transport in Perovskite Barium Stannate [J]. | JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C , 2018 , 122 (21) : 11482-11490 .
MLA Chen, Liang et al. "Roles of Point Defects in Thermal Transport in Perovskite Barium Stannate" . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C 122 . 21 (2018) : 11482-11490 .
APA Chen, Liang , Zhang, Yingying , Wang, Xiaojia , Jalan, Bharat , Chen, Shuangtao , Hou, Yu . Roles of Point Defects in Thermal Transport in Perovskite Barium Stannate . | JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C , 2018 , 122 (21) , 11482-11490 .
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Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 94 , 62-78 | CRYOGENICS | IF: 1.336
WoS CC Cited Count: 2 SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

The cavitating flow of cryogenic liquid through a spray nozzle is influenced by many factors, such as unique thermophysical properties of cryogenic liquid, the inflow temperature and the complicated geometrical structure of the spray nozzle. The geometrical parameters of liquid nitrogen spray nozzles have a profound impact on cavitating flow which in turn affects spray atomization characteristics and cooling performance. In present study, CFD simulations are performed to investigate influence of the nozzle geometry on the liquid nitrogen cavitating flow. The mixture model is used to describe the liquid-vapor two phase flow, and both the cavitation and evaporation are considered for the phase change. The predictions of mass flow of liquid nitrogen spray are validated against experimental results. The effects of geometric parameters, including the outlet orifice diameter and the length of nozzle, the inlet edge angle of orifice, the inlet corner radius of orifice, the orifice shape and different positions of swirl vanes, are investigated under a wide range of pressure difference and inflow temperature. The results show that the effects of geometric parameters on cavitating flow show different trends under subcooled conditions compared with saturated temperature conditions. The flow characteristics are more affected by the changes of the inlet edge angle, the inlet corner radius, and the orifice shape. The insert of swirl vanes has an effect on the distribution of the cavitated vapor within the orifice, but it has little influence on flow characteristics. The results could enrich our knowledge of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow in spray nozzles of various shapes.

Keyword :

Liquid nitrogen spray Cryogenic cavitation Nozzle geometry Mixture model

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GB/T 7714 Xue, Rong , Ruan, Yixiao , Liu, Xiufang et al. Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes [J]. | CRYOGENICS , 2018 , 94 : 62-78 .
MLA Xue, Rong et al. "Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes" . | CRYOGENICS 94 (2018) : 62-78 .
APA Xue, Rong , Ruan, Yixiao , Liu, Xiufang , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes . | CRYOGENICS , 2018 , 94 , 62-78 .
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Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 20 (1) | ENTROPY | IF: 2.419
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 2
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Abstract :

Comparative energy and exergy investigations are reported for a transcritical N2O refrigeration cycle with a throttling valve or with an expander when the gas cooler exit temperature varies from 30 to 55 degrees C and the evaporating temperature varies from -40 to 10 degrees C. The system performance is also compared with that of similar cycles using CO2. Results show that the N2O expander cycle exhibits a larger maximum cooling coefficient of performance (COP) and lower optimum discharge pressure than that of the CO2 expander cycle and N2O throttling valve cycle. It is found that in the N2O throttling valve cycle, the irreversibility of the throttling valve is maximum and the exergy losses of the gas cooler and compressor are ordered second and third, respectively. In the N2O expander cycle, the largest exergy loss occurs in the gas cooler, followed by the compressor and the expander. Compared with the CO2 expander cycle and N2O throttling valve cycle, the N2O expander cycle has the smallest component-specific exergy loss and the highest exergy efficiency at the same operating conditions and at the optimum discharge pressure. It is also proven that the maximum COP and the maximum exergy efficiency cannot be obtained at the same time for the investigated cycles.

Keyword :

COP transcritical refrigeration cycle N2O exergy analysis

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Ze , Hou, Yu , Kulacki, Francis A. . Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander [J]. | ENTROPY , 2018 , 20 (1) .
MLA Zhang, Ze et al. "Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander" . | ENTROPY 20 . 1 (2018) .
APA Zhang, Ze , Hou, Yu , Kulacki, Francis A. . Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander . | ENTROPY , 2018 , 20 (1) .
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Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels EI Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 144 , 812-824 | Applied Thermal Engineering | IF: 4.026
WoS CC Cited Count: 1 SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

In the study, flow boiling instability in horizontal mini-channels is investigated by developing a numerical model that couples flow boiling with the flow supply of liquid nitrogen. The model is validated relative to the experimental results. The results indicate that the heat flux and inlet subcooling significantly influence steady-state characteristic curves. Transient responses of Ledinegg instability, density wave, and pressure drop oscillations are investigated, and comparisons with room-temperature fluids are presented. With respect to the Ledinegg instability, the flow is stabilized away from the site where a positive flow disturbance occurs at the two-phase negative slope region, and the flow exhibits periodic oscillations initially when the negative disturbance is applied. With respect to the conditions of the density wave and pressure drop oscillations, the flow exhibits periodic oscillations when disturbance occurs. The characteristics of the three types of instability of liquid nitrogen flow boiling are compared with those of water/refrigerant fluids. © 2018

Keyword :

Flow boiling Flow boiling instabilities Flow instabilities Horizontal channels Mini channels Periodic oscillation Pressure drop oscillations Steady state characteristics

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Shuangtao , Chen, Xingya , Luo, Gaoqiao et al. Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels [J]. | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2018 , 144 : 812-824 .
MLA Chen, Shuangtao et al. "Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels" . | Applied Thermal Engineering 144 (2018) : 812-824 .
APA Chen, Shuangtao , Chen, Xingya , Luo, Gaoqiao , Zhu, Kuizhang , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels . | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2018 , 144 , 812-824 .
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Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings EI Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 96 , 62-74 | Cryogenics | IF: 1.336
WoS CC Cited Count: 17 SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

High speed turbo-expander is an essential refrigerating component in cryogenic systems. In addition to thermodynamic performance, its stability in transient high speed operation is also of great concern for its comprehensive performance. Oil free foil bearing has a great application potential in high speed turbomachinery by virtue of its high stability with no extra external supplying gas. In this paper, finite element model of a 150 Nm3/h cryogenic turbo-expander using foil bearing for air separation is configured for a case study. Influence of bearing structural stiffness and damping characteristics on the rotor-foil bearing system are evaluated for stable operation. Static structural stiffness and damping coefficients of the protuberant foil journal bearing and thrust bearings are obtained from the static loading and deflection tests. With the tested coefficients, rotordynamic performances of the rotor-bearing system is analyzed numerically and compared with the transient experimental results. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Comprehensive performance Foil journal bearing High-speed operation Numerical and experimental study Rotor dynamic analysis Rotor-bearing system Structural stiffness Thermodynamic performance

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GB/T 7714 Lai, Tianwei , Guo, Yu , Zhao, Qi et al. Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings [J]. | Cryogenics , 2018 , 96 : 62-74 .
MLA Lai, Tianwei et al. "Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings" . | Cryogenics 96 (2018) : 62-74 .
APA Lai, Tianwei , Guo, Yu , Zhao, Qi , Wang, Yu , Zhang, Xingqun , Hou, Yu . Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings . | Cryogenics , 2018 , 96 , 62-74 .
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Heat Confinement of Phase-Change Memory using Graphene EI CPCI-S Scopus
会议论文 | 2017 , 149-154 | 16th IEEE InterSociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)
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Abstract :

Reducing the heat loss is a key pathway for advancing phase change memory (PCM) technology because a good thermal confinement can facilitate the fast phase transition and reduce the programing power. In this study, the thermal boundary resistance between graphene and tungsten electrode heater is investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) and atomistic Green's function (AGF) based approach is employed to explore the interfacial phonon transport across the graphene-electrode interfaces. Interfacial structure is optimized using DFT calculations, and the interaction between graphene/electrode is analyzed based on the electronic structure and cohesive energy. Phonon coupling at the graphene/electrode interface is studied through the analysis of phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states. The AGF results show that the phonon transmission is limited to 4 THz depending on the phonon spectrum in tungsten and a thermal boundary resistance of 21.3 m2(K)/GW is obtained at physisorption interface between single layer graphene and tungsten. This study will provide insights to understand the thermal transport mechanism in PCM and guidelines to engineer the interfaces for better thermal confinement.

Keyword :

tungsten atomistic Green's function thermal boundary conductance density functional theory

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Liang , Xue, Rong , Chen, Shuangtao et al. Heat Confinement of Phase-Change Memory using Graphene [C] . 2017 : 149-154 .
MLA Chen, Liang et al. "Heat Confinement of Phase-Change Memory using Graphene" . (2017) : 149-154 .
APA Chen, Liang , Xue, Rong , Chen, Shuangtao , Hou, Yu . Heat Confinement of Phase-Change Memory using Graphene . (2017) : 149-154 .
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超临界CO2在电子膨胀阀内流动特性的数值分析 CSCD PKU
期刊论文 | 2017 , (5) , 17-22 | 低温工程
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Abstract :

建立了超临界CO2通过电子膨胀阀(EEV)降压过程的二维计算模型,采用均相流模型对超临界CO2通过EEV的两相流动过程进行了数值模拟.结果表明超临界CO2进入膨胀阀后,沿着工质的流动方向,其状态参数在开始变化不大,在接近阀芯最下端的部分,各状态参数开始剧烈变化.越靠近膨胀阀对称中心,CO2压力越大,接近壁面处的压力最小.工质的流速最大的位置位于阀芯尖端,可达到179 m/s.CO2工质流过阀芯尖端流阻最大处时,CO2的压力急剧降低,两相间的质量传递率急剧增加,CO2发生相变.随着EEV内CO2压力的降低,CO2气体份额持续增大,气体份额大小值与压力大小成反相关.

Keyword :

气-液两相流 数值分析 超临界CO2 电子膨胀阀

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GB/T 7714 侯方勇 , 张泽 , 刘昌海 et al. 超临界CO2在电子膨胀阀内流动特性的数值分析 [J]. | 低温工程 , 2017 , (5) : 17-22 .
MLA 侯方勇 et al. "超临界CO2在电子膨胀阀内流动特性的数值分析" . | 低温工程 5 (2017) : 17-22 .
APA 侯方勇 , 张泽 , 刘昌海 , 马娟丽 , 刘秀芳 , 侯予 . 超临界CO2在电子膨胀阀内流动特性的数值分析 . | 低温工程 , 2017 , (5) , 17-22 .
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