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Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels EI Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 144 , 812-824 | Applied Thermal Engineering
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Abstract :

In the study, flow boiling instability in horizontal mini-channels is investigated by developing a numerical model that couples flow boiling with the flow supply of liquid nitrogen. The model is validated relative to the experimental results. The results indicate that the heat flux and inlet subcooling significantly influence steady-state characteristic curves. Transient responses of Ledinegg instability, density wave, and pressure drop oscillations are investigated, and comparisons with room-temperature fluids are presented. With respect to the Ledinegg instability, the flow is stabilized away from the site where a positive flow disturbance occurs at the two-phase negative slope region, and the flow exhibits periodic oscillations initially when the negative disturbance is applied. With respect to the conditions of the density wave and pressure drop oscillations, the flow exhibits periodic oscillations when disturbance occurs. The characteristics of the three types of instability of liquid nitrogen flow boiling are compared with those of water/refrigerant fluids. © 2018

Keyword :

Flow boiling Flow boiling instabilities Flow instabilities Horizontal channels Mini channels Periodic oscillation Pressure drop oscillations Steady state characteristics

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Shuangtao , Chen, Xingya , Luo, Gaoqiao et al. Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels [J]. | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2018 , 144 : 812-824 .
MLA Chen, Shuangtao et al. "Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels" . | Applied Thermal Engineering 144 (2018) : 812-824 .
APA Chen, Shuangtao , Chen, Xingya , Luo, Gaoqiao , Zhu, Kuizhang , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Flow boiling instability of liquid nitrogen in horizontal mini channels . | Applied Thermal Engineering , 2018 , 144 , 812-824 .
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Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 20 (1) | ENTROPY
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Abstract :

Comparative energy and exergy investigations are reported for a transcritical N2O refrigeration cycle with a throttling valve or with an expander when the gas cooler exit temperature varies from 30 to 55 degrees C and the evaporating temperature varies from -40 to 10 degrees C. The system performance is also compared with that of similar cycles using CO2. Results show that the N2O expander cycle exhibits a larger maximum cooling coefficient of performance (COP) and lower optimum discharge pressure than that of the CO2 expander cycle and N2O throttling valve cycle. It is found that in the N2O throttling valve cycle, the irreversibility of the throttling valve is maximum and the exergy losses of the gas cooler and compressor are ordered second and third, respectively. In the N2O expander cycle, the largest exergy loss occurs in the gas cooler, followed by the compressor and the expander. Compared with the CO2 expander cycle and N2O throttling valve cycle, the N2O expander cycle has the smallest component-specific exergy loss and the highest exergy efficiency at the same operating conditions and at the optimum discharge pressure. It is also proven that the maximum COP and the maximum exergy efficiency cannot be obtained at the same time for the investigated cycles.

Keyword :

COP transcritical refrigeration cycle N2O exergy analysis

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Ze , Hou, Yu , Kulacki, Francis A. . Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander [J]. | ENTROPY , 2018 , 20 (1) .
MLA Zhang, Ze et al. "Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander" . | ENTROPY 20 . 1 (2018) .
APA Zhang, Ze , Hou, Yu , Kulacki, Francis A. . Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Transcritical N2O Refrigeration Cycle with an Expander . | ENTROPY , 2018 , 20 (1) .
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Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings EI Scopus SCIE
期刊论文 | 2018 , 96 , 62-74 | Cryogenics
WoS CC Cited Count: 17
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Abstract :

High speed turbo-expander is an essential refrigerating component in cryogenic systems. In addition to thermodynamic performance, its stability in transient high speed operation is also of great concern for its comprehensive performance. Oil free foil bearing has a great application potential in high speed turbomachinery by virtue of its high stability with no extra external supplying gas. In this paper, finite element model of a 150 Nm3/h cryogenic turbo-expander using foil bearing for air separation is configured for a case study. Influence of bearing structural stiffness and damping characteristics on the rotor-foil bearing system are evaluated for stable operation. Static structural stiffness and damping coefficients of the protuberant foil journal bearing and thrust bearings are obtained from the static loading and deflection tests. With the tested coefficients, rotordynamic performances of the rotor-bearing system is analyzed numerically and compared with the transient experimental results. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Comprehensive performance Foil journal bearing High-speed operation Numerical and experimental study Rotor dynamic analysis Rotor-bearing system Structural stiffness Thermodynamic performance

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GB/T 7714 Lai, Tianwei , Guo, Yu , Zhao, Qi et al. Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings [J]. | Cryogenics , 2018 , 96 : 62-74 .
MLA Lai, Tianwei et al. "Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings" . | Cryogenics 96 (2018) : 62-74 .
APA Lai, Tianwei , Guo, Yu , Zhao, Qi , Wang, Yu , Zhang, Xingqun , Hou, Yu . Numerical and experimental studies on stability of cryogenic turbo-expander with protuberant foil gas bearings . | Cryogenics , 2018 , 96 , 62-74 .
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Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 92 , 248-258 | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE
WoS CC Cited Count: 3
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Abstract :

Aiming to improve the heat transfer of phase change spray cooling, experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of surface roughness, nozzle inlet sub-cooling degree and nozzle-to-surface distance. A commercial full cone nozzle was employed to spray the working fluid R134a towards a circular cooling surface in a closed loop system. It is found that rougher cooling surface can bring forward the nucleate boiling, leading to enhanced heat transfer and broadened high-efficiency heat transfer range. Higher nozzle inlet sub-cooling degree can retard the flash evaporation of R134a inside the nozzle passageway and increase the mass flowrate correspondingly. As a result, the spray cooling performance is greatly improved. With regard to the influence of nozzle-to-surface distance, the optimal heat transfer capability is obtained at 16 mm. It is slightly larger than the distance at which the circular cooling surface is overlapped with the cross-section of the spray field. For purpose of gaining a deeper insight into the underlying reason, a CFD model based on the Euler-Lagrange approach was established to simulate the atomization process. The results show that the nozzle-to-surface distance not only affects the spray field coverage area, but also has some impacts on the microscopic atomization characteristics. The combined action of these two factors accounts for the occurrence of the optimal nozzle-to-surface distance.

Keyword :

Surface roughness Nozzle-to-surface distance Sub-cooling degree Phase change heat transfer Spray cooling

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GB/T 7714 Liu, Xiufang , Liu, Jionghui , Xue, Rong et al. Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system [J]. | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE , 2018 , 92 : 248-258 .
MLA Liu, Xiufang et al. "Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system" . | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE 92 (2018) : 248-258 .
APA Liu, Xiufang , Liu, Jionghui , Xue, Rong , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Heat transfer optimization of R134a phase change spray cooling in a closed loop system . | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE , 2018 , 92 , 248-258 .
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Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 , 94 , 62-78 | CRYOGENICS
SCOPUS Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

The cavitating flow of cryogenic liquid through a spray nozzle is influenced by many factors, such as unique thermophysical properties of cryogenic liquid, the inflow temperature and the complicated geometrical structure of the spray nozzle. The geometrical parameters of liquid nitrogen spray nozzles have a profound impact on cavitating flow which in turn affects spray atomization characteristics and cooling performance. In present study, CFD simulations are performed to investigate influence of the nozzle geometry on the liquid nitrogen cavitating flow. The mixture model is used to describe the liquid-vapor two phase flow, and both the cavitation and evaporation are considered for the phase change. The predictions of mass flow of liquid nitrogen spray are validated against experimental results. The effects of geometric parameters, including the outlet orifice diameter and the length of nozzle, the inlet edge angle of orifice, the inlet corner radius of orifice, the orifice shape and different positions of swirl vanes, are investigated under a wide range of pressure difference and inflow temperature. The results show that the effects of geometric parameters on cavitating flow show different trends under subcooled conditions compared with saturated temperature conditions. The flow characteristics are more affected by the changes of the inlet edge angle, the inlet corner radius, and the orifice shape. The insert of swirl vanes has an effect on the distribution of the cavitated vapor within the orifice, but it has little influence on flow characteristics. The results could enrich our knowledge of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow in spray nozzles of various shapes.

Keyword :

Liquid nitrogen spray Cryogenic cavitation Nozzle geometry Mixture model

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GB/T 7714 Xue, Rong , Ruan, Yixiao , Liu, Xiufang et al. Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes [J]. | CRYOGENICS , 2018 , 94 : 62-78 .
MLA Xue, Rong et al. "Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes" . | CRYOGENICS 94 (2018) : 62-78 .
APA Xue, Rong , Ruan, Yixiao , Liu, Xiufang , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Numerical study of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through nozzles of various shapes . | CRYOGENICS , 2018 , 94 , 62-78 .
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Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions EI Scopus
期刊论文 | 2018 | Cryogenics
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Abstract :

Liquid nitrogen spray cooling can achieve an excellent cooling performance in a cryogenic wind tunnel which can simulate supersonic flows with both high Reynolds number and Mach number for aerodynamic tests. However, the fluctuating flow of a liquid nitrogen supply system can lead to the fluctuation of the injection pressure which induces unsteady cavitation and makes it difficult to control the cooling and high-precision temperature in the cryogenic wind tunnel. To understand the characteristics of the unsteady cavitation in fluctuating flow, we developed the numerical models of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow through the spray nozzles. Sine functions are normally used to simulate the fluctuating inlet pressure, and the effects of the fluctuation amplitude and frequency on the cavitation processes are studied under different inlet temperatures. It is found that the cavitation changes periodically and is generally promoted by the pressure fluctuation. The increase of the frequency can slightly suppress the cavitation while the increase of the amplitude can promote the cavitation. The effects of amplitude and frequency are enhanced under a higher inlet temperature. These findings could benefit the design of cryogenic spray cooling systems in cryogenic wind tunnels. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keyword :

Cooling performance Cryogenic spray cooling Cryogenic wind tunnels Fluctuation amplitudes High Reynolds number Mixture model Pressure fluctuation Unsteady cavitation

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GB/T 7714 Xue, Rong , Chen, Liang , Zhong, Xin et al. Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions [J]. | Cryogenics , 2018 .
MLA Xue, Rong et al. "Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions" . | Cryogenics (2018) .
APA Xue, Rong , Chen, Liang , Zhong, Xin , Liu, Xiufang , Chen, Shuangtao , Hou, Yu . Unsteady cavitation of liquid nitrogen flow in spray nozzles under fluctuating conditions . | Cryogenics , 2018 .
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Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of LN2 saturated flow boiling in a horizontal corrugated tube EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 80 , 259-269 | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE | IF: 3.204
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Abstract :

The two-phase heat transfer of saturated liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow boiling in a horizontal corrugated tube was experimentally studied. The experiments were conducted at different inlet pressures of 0.180-0.461 MPa and mass fluxes of 163.1-257.1 kg m(-2) s(-1) under a wide range of heat flux of 16,000-40,000 W m(-2). The flow pattern was identified to be unstratified flow according to the circumferential distributions of heat transfer temperature differences. Two heat transfer regimes were observed in the present experiment: the nucleate boiling dominated heat transfer and the convective evaporation dominated heat transfer. Due to the thinning of the liquid film at the tube inner surface caused by helical fin, nucleation suppression and convection augmentation were observed and the variation of the circumferential average HTC with the flow parameters became complex depending on the relative importance of the two heat transfer mechanisms. The effects of heat flux, vapor quality, inlet pressure and mass flux on the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are discussed. The results show that the nucleate boiling heat transfer is enhanced with the increase of heat flux, while the convective evaporation is enhanced with the increase of mass flux and vapor quality, and the decrease of pressure. In order to improve the prediction of HTCs, the Klimenko correlation for cryogenic fluids are included in an additive model. Based on the experimental data of circumferential average heat transfer coefficients, the parameterization of the additive model including the convective and nucleate boiling components was obtained for the LN2 saturated flow boiling in the corrugated tube. Compared to the Klimenko correlation for the flow boiling of cryogenic fluids with a fully wetted perimeter in smooth tubes, the proposed parameterization of the additive model improves the prediction of HTCs in the convective evaporation dominated regime. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keyword :

Liquid nitrogen Horizontal corrugated tube Saturated flow boiling heat transfer

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GB/T 7714 Su, Xuemei , Chen, Xingya , Zhang, Qiaoyu et al. Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of LN2 saturated flow boiling in a horizontal corrugated tube [J]. | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE , 2017 , 80 : 259-269 .
MLA Su, Xuemei et al. "Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of LN2 saturated flow boiling in a horizontal corrugated tube" . | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE 80 (2017) : 259-269 .
APA Su, Xuemei , Chen, Xingya , Zhang, Qiaoyu , Liu, Xiufang , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of LN2 saturated flow boiling in a horizontal corrugated tube . | EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL AND FLUID SCIENCE , 2017 , 80 , 259-269 .
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Influence of Refrigerant Charge Amount and EEV Opening on the Performance of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 10 (10) | ENERGIES | IF: 2.676
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Abstract :

Besides compressor rotary speed and parameters of water flowing through gas cooler and evaporator, refrigerant charge amount and electronic expansion valve (EEV) opening are two important parameters that have significant effects on the performance of a transcritical CO2 heat pump system. In this study, the effects of refrigerant charge amount on the performance of a transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater were investigated experimentally at different EEV openings. An optimal coefficient of performance (COP) was found that corresponded to a specific refrigerant charge and a specific EEV opening. Based on the experiment, the COP peaked at charge of 1.8 kg when EEV opening was 40% of full opening. The heating capacity and the COP increased at first, reached peaks and then decreased with increase of charge amount. The COP decreased 14.95% as the CO2 charge amount was reduced by 22.2% from the optimal charge at 50% EEV opening. As EEV opening varied from 40% to 60% at the same charge amount, the heating capacity decreased more than 30%.

Keyword :

refrigerant charge amount heat pump transcritical CO2 cycle electronic expansion valve opening COP

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GB/T 7714 Zhang, Ze , Dong, Xiaojun , Ren, Zheng et al. Influence of Refrigerant Charge Amount and EEV Opening on the Performance of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater [J]. | ENERGIES , 2017 , 10 (10) .
MLA Zhang, Ze et al. "Influence of Refrigerant Charge Amount and EEV Opening on the Performance of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater" . | ENERGIES 10 . 10 (2017) .
APA Zhang, Ze , Dong, Xiaojun , Ren, Zheng , Lai, Tianwei , Hou, Yu . Influence of Refrigerant Charge Amount and EEV Opening on the Performance of a Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater . | ENERGIES , 2017 , 10 (10) .
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Effect of impeller blade profile on the cryogenic two-phase turbo-expander performance EI SCIE Scopus
期刊论文 | 2017 , 126 , 884-891 | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING | IF: 3.771
WoS CC Cited Count: 1
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Abstract :

Being the yore-Nock of air separation and liquefaction plants, turbo-expanders should definitely be responsible for the most part of refrigeration capacity for the whole cryogenic system. The feasibility and economy of the whole cryogenic equipment can be prompted by achieving two-phase flow state at the turbo-expander outlet. A reasonable design of 3-D impeller blade has an important significance on the thermodynamic performance of turbo-expanders. In this paper, the influences of impeller blade profile on spontaneous condensation flow and thermodynamic performance are investigated. The non equilibrium spontaneous condensation process in the flow passage is simulated based on Euler/Euler two-fluid models. Classical nucleation theory with non-isothermal correction and Gyarmathy droplet growth model are used for the prediction of the liquid droplets formation and growth. The definition of three-dimensional blade surfaces are determined by relative length of expansion section (RBe) and curvature of diversion section (Cur). The effects of the RBe and Cur values on the flow characteristics and thermodynamic performance are analyzed, such as velocity, nucleation rate, flow losses and exit kinetic energy. Based on results of the analysis, some theoretical guidance on the design of impeller blade profile for cryogenic two-phase turbo-expanders is obtained. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keyword :

Isentropic efficiency Impeller blade profile Condensation Turbo-expander

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GB/T 7714 Chen, Shuangtao , Sun, Wan , Niu, Lu et al. Effect of impeller blade profile on the cryogenic two-phase turbo-expander performance [J]. | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING , 2017 , 126 : 884-891 .
MLA Chen, Shuangtao et al. "Effect of impeller blade profile on the cryogenic two-phase turbo-expander performance" . | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING 126 (2017) : 884-891 .
APA Chen, Shuangtao , Sun, Wan , Niu, Lu , Chen, Liang , Hou, Yu . Effect of impeller blade profile on the cryogenic two-phase turbo-expander performance . | APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING , 2017 , 126 , 884-891 .
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Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem EI SCIE Scopus CSCD
期刊论文 | 2017 , 19 (2) | PLASMA SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY | IF: 1.07
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Abstract :

The EAST superconducting tokamak, an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, has been built at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All the toroidal field magnets and poloidal field magnets, made of NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit conductor, are cooled with forced flow supercritical helium at 3.8 K. The cryogenic system of EAST consists of a 2 kW/4 K helium refrigerator and a helium distribution system for the cooling of coils, structures, thermal shields, bus-lines, etc. The high-speed turbo-expander is an important refrigerating component of the EAST cryogenic system. In the turbo-expander, the axial supporting technology is critical for the smooth operation of the rotor bearing system. In this paper, hydrostatic thrust bearings are designed based on the axial load of the turbo-expander. Thereafter, a computational fluid dynamics-based numerical model of the aerostatic thrust bearing is set up to evaluate the bearing performance. Tilting effect on the pressure distribution and bearing load is analyzed for the thrust bearing. Bearing load and stiffness are compared with different static supply pressures. The net force from the thrust bearings can be calculated for different combinations of bearing clearance and supply pressure.

Keyword :

bearing load EAST inclination aerostatic thrust bearing helium cryogenic system

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GB/T 7714 Lai, Tianwei , Fu, Bao , Chen, Shuangtao et al. Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem [J]. | PLASMA SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY , 2017 , 19 (2) .
MLA Lai, Tianwei et al. "Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem" . | PLASMA SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 19 . 2 (2017) .
APA Lai, Tianwei , Fu, Bao , Chen, Shuangtao , Zhang, Qiyong , Hou, Yu . Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem . | PLASMA SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY , 2017 , 19 (2) .
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